Sundanese traditional houses, different roof shapes as cultural icons
The Sundanese are one of the largest tribes in Indonesia that inhabit various areas of West Java. One of the Sundanese cultural heritage that is still preserved is the Sundanese traditional house.
The Sundanese still respect nature in their lives, including building houses. Sundanese traditional houses use local materials of stone, bamboo and wood, as well as leaf roofing materials. Materials such as palm fiber, black palm fiber and palm leaves are also used for Sundanese traditional houses.
The Sundanese traditional house is one of the traditional houses that has the basic shape of the roof structure to distinguish the names of the types.
Sudanese traditional household name
In fact, Sundanese traditional houses have different names based on their shape warm or roofs and doors of existing houses. Suhunan is part of a traditional Sundanese wooden house.
If you can see from the shape warm and the roof, there are several names of Sundanese traditional houses, including Jolopong House, Tagog Anjing, Badak Heuay, Perahu Kemureb, Jubleg Nangkub, Buka Pongpok, Calopon, Capit Gunting and Adat Kesepuhan.
From some of these traditional houses, the shape of the dry Jolopong is the simplest form and is often found in cultural heritage areas and rural areas of West Java. Now, the uses and uses of Sundanese traditional houses are a place of rest and shelter for Sundanese people.
Pictures of Sundanese traditional house
There are several pictures of traditional Sundanese houses by type. Examples of Sundanese traditional houses differ in the type of roof construction, which has its own uniqueness.
1. Clamp for scissors
The name Capit Gunting appears because of the sloping shape of the roof like the letter X or scissors. The roof is high and uses dry leaf material. These dry leaves keep the house always cool.
This Sundanese traditional house in the shape of a cap-scissors is one of the oldest and most difficult to find among other Sundanese traditional houses. Examples of this traditional Sunda Capit Gunting house can be found in Tasikmalaya.
2. Jubleg Nangkup
The Sundanese traditional house Jubleg Nangkup has a characteristic multi-story roof shape with bamboo walls and large carvings. Sundanese traditional house Jubleg Nangkup shows the Sundanese personality philosophy which is friendly, polite and unpretentious.
This traditional house also symbolizes the beautiful fertile and prosperous Sundanese land. An example of the Sundanese traditional house Jubleg Nangkup is located in Sumedang.
3. Badak Heuay
The traditional Sunda Badak Heuay house has a roof shape similar to that of a yawning rhinoceros. In addition to the basic material of wood on the walls and floors, the roof of the traditional Sunda Badak Heuay house is made of clay tiles. The roof is not symmetrical and is divided into two parts, a smaller roof that is higher and a large roof that covers the back of the house.
4. The Kumereb ship
In keeping with its shape, this Sundanese traditional house is named Perahu Kumereb because it has a roof shape similar to an upturned boat. Apart from the unique shape of the roof, the other parts of the house also consist of different shapes, from trapezoidal shapes on the back and front to an equilateral triangle on the left and right sides of the house. Examples of traditional Sunda Perahu Kumureba houses can be found in Garut, Ciamis and Tasikmalaya.
5. Tagog Pas
The traditional Sunda Tagog Dog house has a roof that resembles a sitting or crouching dog. Compared to other Sundanese traditional houses, this type has the shape of a stilt house with a low position.
Another characteristic of the traditional Sunda Tagog Dog house is that the building is rectangular in shape from the back. Examples of traditional Sundanese dog houses can be found in the Garut area.
The traditional Sundanese Jolopong house has a roof shaped like a long saddle. It got this name because the interior of the terrace of the house was left empty without any furniture.
Uniquely, if the owner of a traditional Sunda Jolopong house has guests, the mat will be held on the terrace. This type of traditional house has several rooms such as the middle part House or central space, core or porchpart pancakes or room, i the kitchen or the kitchen. Examples of traditional Sundanese Jolopong houses can be found in Garut.
7. Open Pongpok
The Sunda Buka Pongpok traditional house has the simplest form of traditional houses of other types. The entrance is parallel to one end of the roof.
The traditional Sunda Buka Pongpok house is made of wood as a foundation, clay tiles for the roof and woven bamboo for the walls.
8. Julang Ngapak
The traditional Sunda Julang Ngapak house has a roof shaped like a bird flapping its wings. The roof is made of reeds, fibers and sago palm leaves, while the walls are made of wood and bamboo. Examples of traditional Sunda Julang Ngapak houses can be found in Tasikmalaya and Kuningan.
Peculiarities of Sundanese traditional houses
The architectural style of Sundanese traditional house design emphasizes functionality, simplicity and uniformity of wood details. In addition, the design of the Sundanese traditional house also has a uniqueness that distinguishes it from traditional houses in other provinces.
1. A low house on stilts
Unlike the stilt houses in Sumatra, Sundanese traditional houses have stilts 0.5-1 meter above the ground. The existence of this phase has the philosophy of honoring the people who died and ancestors in Sunda Country.
2. Calling by the name of an animal or an object
Sundanese traditional houses have 8 different roof shapes. The Sundanese call him by the names of animals and objects around him to make it easier to recognize him.
3. Using materials from nature
Sundanese traditional houses are known for displaying the characteristics of traditional architecture, namely the use of materials from nature such as bamboo, wood, stone, leaves and so on.
4. Location and location of the building
According to the Sundanese people, the direction of the sun is the yardstick for determining the position of the house. This is to remember the direction of Qibla. Each house must not face anything but west and east.
To build the next Sundanese traditional house, it is also necessary to adapt to the position of the houses that were previously built in the area.
5. Split bamboo floor
The main difference between Sundanese traditional houses and other traditional houses is the use of split bamboo for the floor. The use of bamboo is intended for air circulation through the bottom of the house. The pit itself is used for raising livestock or storing agricultural equipment.
6. Bamboo walls and ceilings
Woven bamboo on the walls is applied so that the holes in the Sundanese traditional house can be used as a way for the wind to enter and exit. In this way, the house will seem cold. The ceiling of the Sundanese traditional house is also made of bamboo with the purpose of storing the house owner’s belongings.
Sketch of a Sundanese traditional house
There are 3 patterns of shapes on the shape of the roof that can be seen in the following sketch of a Sundanese traditional house.
– The skeleton bone, i.e. the roof located on the back side of a rather long,
– Rarangki huts, i.e. shorter middle roof,
– Long Rarangki, the front roof that has the longest shape.
©Yan Yan Ariesandi Nugraha
The lower part of each roof rarangki has a certain division of rooms. The women’s room is under the skeleton, the family room is under the hut, while the family room is under the hut terrace and sasaro receiving guests is at the bottom of a long chain.
In the cosmology of Sundanese traditional houses, there are “front” and “back” and “left” and “right” categories that separate men and women. The front and left rooms are for men, while the back and right rooms are for women. In Sundanese culture bagwomen occupy a high degree.
©Yan Yan Ariesandi Nugraha
Also read: Getting to know the traditional houses, philosophy and unique meanings of the Acehnese